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We report a unique case of a renal transplant patient with a long-term nonprogressive human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection and who is asymptomatic despite sustained immunosuppression. Renal function is normal, and HIV infection was probably acquired through blood transfusion before the transplant. Nonprogression may be due either to an effective immune control of HIV replication or to particular genetic aspects of the virus. Several virological investigations were carried out to verify if she is infected with an attenuated virus strain. Results show an unusual combination of high and stable CD4 count, ongoing viral replication and elevated viral loads. Attempts to isolate the virus from plasma were unsuccessful, but isolation was possible from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the virus was shown to be non-syncytium-inducing. Sequence analysis of the nef gene revealed no mutation. This exceptional lack of progression of HIV infection under immunosuppressive therapy requires further investigation.