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This paper reports the histopathologic results of 2-year protocol biopsies from patients who were enrolled in the U.S. FK506 kidney transplant study.Recipients of cadaveric kidney transplants were randomized to tacrolimus or cyclosporine therapy. Patients active in the trial at 2 years after transplantation were approached for a protocol biopsy. Biopsies were scored by the Banff classification in a blinded fashion by one pathologist.A total of 144 patients (41.3% of those active at 2 years) had a 2-year protocol biopsy performed; 79 patients were treated with tacrolimus and 65 patients were treated with cyclosporine. Evidence of acute rejection was found in seven (8.9%) of the 2-year biopsies in tacrolimus-treated patients and six (9.2%) cyclosporine-treated patients. Chronic allograft nephropathy was found in 49 (62.0%) tacrolimus biopsies and 47 (72.3%) cyclosporine biopsies (P=0.155). There were no apparent histopathologic differences between the tacrolimus and cyclosporine biopsies. The occurrence of chronic allograft nephropathy was significantly higher in patients who received a graft from an older donor (P<0.01), who experienced presumed cyclosporine or tacrolimus nephrotoxicity (P<0.001), who developed a cytomegalovirus infection (P=0.038), or who experienced acute rejection in the first year after transplantation (P=0.045). A multivariate analysis showed that nephrotoxicity and acute rejection were the most significant predictors for chronic allograft nephropathy.The occurrence of histologic acute rejection was rare at 2 years, confirming the absence of subclinical acute rejection in these late biopsies. A majority of the biopsies showed features consistent with chronic allograft nephropathy that was associated with acute rejection (particularly in cyclosporine-treated patients), nephrotoxicity, and cytomegalovirus infection in the first year. This suggests that nonimmunologic factors, such as drug-induced toxicity, may play an important role in chronic allograft nephropathy.