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Hypomagnesemia has been associated with hypertension, abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism, and accelerated atherosclerosis in nontransplant patients.In this prospective short-term pilot study, 14 hypomagnesemic renal transplant recipients with stable renal function were evaluated monthly over a 6-month interval. The first 3 months was the baseline observation period. During the second 3 months, MgO2 was administered to normalize the serum Mg level. Glucose tolerance, lipid levels, blood pressure, weight, and routine chemistries were assessed before and after Mg replacement. All others medications were held constant during the 6-month study.Serum Mg levels increased to normal range after MgO2 therapy, which was well tolerated. There were significant decreases in total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein ratio after 3 months of MgO2 therapy. Only three patients had abnormal baseline glucose tolerance tests. All three patients showed improved glucose tolerance after MgO2, but this was not statistically significant.Mg repletion may be an important ancillary therapy in hypomagnesemic renal transplant patients with hyperlipidemia.