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Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APAS) is characterized by the presence of anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA) in association with thrombotic disorders of arterial and/or venus systems, spontaneous abortion(s) or thrombocytopenia.In this multicenter study, 502 end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients awaiting renal transplants were screened to determine the frequency of APAS, the potential risk associated with APAS, and strategies for therapeutic intervention. Ninety-three patients (19%) had high titers of ACA. Twenty-three patients had documented evidence of one or more of the thrombotic disorders such as lupus, frequent abortions, frequent thrombosis of arteriovenous shunts, biopsy-proven microrenal angiopathy, or thrombocytopenia and thus were diagnosed with APAS. Of these 23 patients, 11 received kidney transplants either with (4 patients) or without (7 patients), concomitant anticoagulation therapy.All seven of the patients with APAS not treated with anticoagulation therapy lost their allografts within 1 week as a result of renal thrombosis. In contrast, three out of four transplant patients with APAS treated with anticoagulation therapy maintained their allografts for over 2 years. The fourth patient lost his graft within a week because of thrombosis. Of the remaining 70 patients with high titers of ACA but no evidence of thrombotic disorders, 37 received kidney transplants. None lost their allografts as a result of thrombosis. Our data suggest that, although 19% of our ESRD patients exhibit high titer of ACA, only 5% of the patients have APAS.In conclusion, our data suggest that the patients with APAS are at high risk of posttransplant renal thrombosis. Anticoagulation therapy could prevent patients from posttransplant thrombosis in patients with APAS.