The preventive effect of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) and pentoxifylline (PTX) administered during reperfusion has been demonstrated on experimental models of lung ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury but this strategy is not validated in clinical lung transplantation. The aim of this study was to assess retrospectively the protective effect of inhaled NO and PTX after lung transplantation.Methods.
Twenty-three consecutive patients who received inhaled NO (10 ppm) and PTX (NO-PTX group) at the time of reperfusion were compared retrospectively with (1) 23 consecutive patients transplanted just before the use of NO-PTX (control group 23); (2) 95 patients representing all the patients of the series who did not receive NO-PTX (control group 95), with respect to I/R injury related complications. In particular, the incidence of pulmonary reimplantation edema and early hemodynamic failure, the PaO2/FIO2 ratio as well as the duration of mechanical ventilation and the 2-month mortality rates were compared.Results.
Reimplantation edema was observed in 6/23 patients (26%) in the NO-PTX group vs. 13/23 patients (56%) in the control group 23 (P =0.035) and 48/95 patients (50%) in the control group 95 (P =0.035). The worst PaO2/FIO2 ratio during the first three postoperative days was 240±102 mmHg in the NO-PTX group vs. 162±88 mmHg (P =0.01) and 176±107 mmHg (P =0.01) in the control group 23 and the control group 95, respectively. The duration of mechanical ventilation was 2.1±2.4 days in the NO-PTX group vs. 7±9 days in the control group 23 (P =0.02) and 6±7 days in the control group 95 (P =0.01). The 2-month mortality rate was 4.3% in the NO-PTX group vs. 26% (P =0.04) and 21% (P =0.07) in the control group 23 and the control group 95, respectively.Conclusions.
The marked decrease in the incidence of allograft dysfunction compared with two historical control groups suggests that PTX and inhaled NO given before and throughout reperfusion are protective against I/R injury in the setting of clinical transplantation.