PREVENTION OF OBLITERATIVE AIRWAY DISEASE IN HLA-A2-TRANSGENIC TRACHEAL ALLOGRAFTS BY NEUTRALIZATION OF TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR1


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Abstract

Background. Inflammatory cytokines play an important role in the development of experimental obliterative airway disease (OAD) after transplantation. To further determine the immunologic mechanisms associated with OAD development, we used a murine tracheal transplant model in which a single mismatched HLA-A2-transgenic molecule is indirectly recognized by the recipient CD4+ T cells and then determined whether neutralization of several inflammatory cytokines affected the development of OAD.Methods. Tracheas from HLA-A2+ C57BL/6 mice were heterotopically transplanted into C57BL/6 mice. Recipients were treated with neutralizing antibodies against tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), or interleukin-1 (IL-1). Allograft histology as well as anti-HLA-A2 antibody development and T cell proliferative responses were determined at days +5, +15, +28, and +60.Results. Allografts in untreated and anti-IFN-γ-treated recipients demonstrated full development of OAD by day +28. Allografts in anti-TNF-treated recipients showed no evidence of OAD, even at day +60. Allografts in anti-IL-1-treated recipients showed airway epithelium changes by day +28 but minimal evidence of OAD by day +60. Spleen cells from untreated and anti-IFN-γ-treated recipients showed significantly higher proliferative responses to HLA-A2+ cells, compared with syngeneic recipients (negative controls). In contrast, anti-TNF and anti-IL-1-treated recipients showed significantly lower proliferative responses to HLA-A2+ cells, compared with untreated recipients. Development of anti-HLA-A2 antibodies was detected in all recipients by day +15, with the exception of those treated with anti-TNF.Conclusion. Among the inflammatory cytokines, TNF seems to play a crucial role in the immunopathology of OAD developed after transplantation.

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