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Prolonged immunodeficiency after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo BMT) results in significant morbidity and mortality from infection. Previous studies in murine syngeneic BMT models have demonstrated that posttransplantation insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I administration could enhance immune reconstitution.To analyze the effects of IGF-I on immune reconstitution and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allo BMT, we used murine models for MHC-matched and -mismatched allo BMT. Young (3-month-old) recipient mice received 4 mg/kg per day of human IGF-I from days 14 to 28 by continuous subcutaneous administration.IGF-I administration resulted in increased thymic precursor populations (triple negative-2 and triple negative-3) as determined on day 28 but had no effect on overall thymic cellularity. In the periphery, the numbers of donor-derived splenic CD3+ T cells were increased and these cells had an improved proliferative response to mitogen stimulation. IGF-I treatment also significantly increased the numbers of pro-, pre-, and mature B cells and myeloid cell populations in the spleens of allo BMT recipients on day 28. The administration of IGF-I in combination with interleukin 7 had a remarkable additive effect on B-cell, but not on T-cell, lymphopoiesis. Finally, we tested the effects of IGF-I administration on the development of GVHD in three different MHC-matched and -mismatched models and found no changes in GVHD morbidity and mortality.IGF-I administration can enhance lymphoid and myeloid reconstitution after allo BMT without aggravating GVHD.