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Development of cancer is a feared, and increasingly apparent, complication of long-term immunosuppressive therapy in transplant recipients. In addition to the need to reduce cancer occurrence in these patients, therapeutic protocols are lacking to simultaneously attack the malignancy and protect the allograft when neoplasms do occur. In this overview, we present the current literature regarding the pro- and anti-neoplastic effects of immunosuppressive agents on cancer growth and development. Recent experimental findings are paving the way for new therapeutic strategies aimed at both protecting an allograft from immunologic rejection and addressing the problem of cancer in this high-risk population.