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Major urological complications (MUCs) after kidney transplantation contribute to patient morbidity and compromise graft function. Ureteric stents have been successfully used to treat such complications and a number of centers have adopted a policy of universal prophylactic stenting, at the time of graft implantation, to reduce the incidence of urine leaks and ureteric stenosis.In conjunction with the Cochrane Renal Group we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, reference lists of articles, books and abstracts and contacted companies, authors and experts to identify randomized controlled trials examining the use of stents in renal transplantation. The primary outcome was the incidence of MUCs and data on this statistic was pooled and analyzed using a random effects model.Seven randomized controlled trials (1154 patients) of low or moderate quality were identified. The incidence of MUCs was significantly reduced (relative risk [RR] 0.24; 95% CI: 0.07 - 0.77; P=0.02; number needed to treat = 13) by prophylactic ureteric stenting. Urinary tract infections were more common in stented patients (RR 1.49), unless the patients were prescribed 480 mg cotrimoxazole once daily. With this antibiotic regime the incidence of infection was equivalent between the two groups (RR 0.97). Stents appeared generally well tolerated, although trials using longer stents (≥20 cm) for longer periods of time (>6 weeks) reported more problems with encrustation and migration.Universal prophylactic stenting reduces the incidence of MUCs and should be recommended on the basis of currently available randomized controlled trials.