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Macrophage accumulation has long been recognized as a feature of allograft rejection, yet the role of macrophages in rejection remains underappreciated. Macrophages contribute to both the innate and acquired arms of the alloimmune response and thus may be involved in all aspects of acute and chronic allograft rejection. Recent advances in macrophage biology have allowed a better understanding of the mechanisms of macrophage accumulation, their state of activation and the pleuripotent roles they play in allograft rejection. Therapeutic attention to macrophages, in addition to T lymphocytes, may lead to improved outcomes in organ transplantation.