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The purpose of this study was to evaluate adult renal transplantation patients who received a alemtuzumab (Campath-1H)-based induction protocol for the incidence of infectious complications.We began using 30 mg Campath-1H intravenously for induction therapy in May 2003. The patients were treated with a maintenance regimen of tacrolimus or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), and rapidly tapered prednisone; valganciclovir was used for CMV prophylaxis. Forty-nine adult patients who received renal transplants between May 1, 2003 and June 7, 2004 were included. The mean follow-up time was 13.7 months with a range of 10-24 months. Data were collected via a retrospective chart review.The infectious complications noted in the Campath-1H group were compared with a historical group of 56 patients receiving conventional immunosuppression. There was one case of cytomegalovirus (CMV) viremia and two cases of CMV disease (one pneumonitis and one enteritis). There were four cases of urinary tract infection and one extremity cellulitis. One patient developed Cryptococcal meningitis. Eight of the 49 (16%) patients in the Campath group had an infectious complication, compared to 18 out of 56 (32%) in the historical group.Campath-1H induction for renal transplantation appears to have a low incidence of associated infectious complications when compared to historical regimens.