Little information is currently available about the role of islet transplantation alone (ITA) on the retinal microcirculation. Our purpose was to investigate with color-Doppler-imaging the effect of ITA after one year on the blood flow velocities of central retinal artery and vein. Central retinal arteries and veins of both eyes of 10 ITA patients were evaluated with color-Doppler-imaging before and one year after transplant. Peak systolic velocity (psv), end diastolic velocity (edv) for arteries and maximum velocity (maxv), minimum velocity (minv) for veins were recorded and compared with a control group of type 1 diabetic patients. At one year, a statistically significant increase of blood flow velocities of central retinal arteries (psv: 6.09±0.46 vs. 10.12±1.20 cm/s, P=0.01) and veins (maxv: 3.12±0.28 vs. 6.12±1.00 cm/s, P=0.01) was found only in the ITA patients. An early, significant increase of arterial and venous retinal blood flow velocities was found after ITA.