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In a search for immunosuppressive drugs having novel mechanisms, monocarboxylate transporter (MCT-1) inhibitors were identified that markedly inhibited immune responses. Here, we report the effects of AR-C117977, a potent MCT-1 inhibitor, on alloimmune responses in the rat.In vitro activity was determined in a rat mixed lymphocyte response (MLR). In vivo activity was tested in a graft versus host response (GVHR) and in both high (DA to PVG) and low (PVG to DA) responder cardiac allograft models. To assess induction of donor-specific suppression recipients of allogeneic hearts surviving longer than 100 days received a second transplant either of the same donor strain or a third-party donor strain. Effects on chronic graft rejection were assessed histologically by evaluating vasculopathy in long-term surviving grafts and in an obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) model.AR-C117977 inhibited the rat MLR and was more potent than cyclosporin A (CsA). In the rat GVHR model, AR-C117977 gave a dose-related inhibition. In the high responder cardiac allograft model, graft survival in excess of 100 days was achieved with AR-C117977 compared with 20 days with CsA and all the long-term survivors exhibited donor-specific suppression on retransplantation. In the low responder model, both AR-C117977 and CsA induced survival in excess of 100 days. Histology of the long-term surviving grafts suggested reduced vasculopathy associated with chronic rejection. Furthermore, AR-C117977 inhibited the occlusion of transplanted trachea in a OB model.This report describes a MCT-1 specific inhibitor having immunosuppressive activity on alloimmune responses and inducing donor-specific suppression.