The outcome of liver transplantation (LT) in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been a matter of controversy.Methods.
A retrospective cohort study was performed to assess the impact of HIV on LT survival by using United Network for Organ Sharing registry Standard Transplant Analysis and Research files.Results.
A total of 138 HIV(+) and 30,520 HIV(−) patients who were ≥18 years old and underwent LT during the highly active antiretroviral therapy era (starting January 1, 1997) in the United States were included. Among all HIV(+) patients, the estimated 2-year survival probability was lower (70%) than among non-HIV patients (81%). This excess risk appeared entirely among those with coinfections, that is, HIV with hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus (HCV), as none of the 24 HIV-infected patients who did not have hepatitis B virus or HCV died during an average of 1.2 years of follow-up per person. Among HCV(+) patients, those with HIV coinfection had significantly lower survival rates than patients without HIV (P=0.006). Controlling for age, coinfection, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores, and other potential confounders in a proportional hazards regression analysis, HIV(+) patients had a hazard ratio of 1.41 (P=0.14, 95% confidence interval: 0.90–2.22) for mortality after LT.Conclusion.
HIV(+) patients without HCV coinfection seemed to have good prognosis, whereas patients who had HIV/HCV coinfection had poor outcomes, which were significantly worse than that seen in those with HCV alone.