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Adult bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotential cells capable of regenerating injured tissues. In addition to their multipotency, MSCs inhibit natural killer cell cytotoxicity and T-lymphocyte alloproliferation. Several immunosuppressive mechanisms have been described, including indoleamine 2, 3, -dioxygenase-induced depletion of tryptophan from the lymphocyte environment, and the secretion of prostaglandin E2 and other immunosuppressive factors. Here, we review data supporting a new MSC immunoregulation pathway, in which the key molecule is the human leukocyte antigen-G protein. This nonclassical human leukocyte antigen-class I molecule was initially found on trophoblasts, where it contributes to tolerance at the materno-fetal interface. Because trophoblasts are also able to express indoleamine 2, 3, -dioxygenase and prostaglandin E2, MSC immunomodulatory properties are similar to those of trophoblasts. These mechanisms should be explored in relation to induction of tolerance to alloantigens for the prevention of graft rejection after transplantation.