Mycobacterium Tuberculosis—Associated Immune Reconstitution Syndrome in Solid-Organ Transplant Recipients

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BackgroundIncidence, characteristics, and risk factors for tuberculosis (TB)-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRS) in solid-organ transplant (SOT) recipients are not known.MethodsPatients are composed of 64 consecutive SOT recipients with TB followed for 12 months. IRS was defined based on previously proposed criteria.ResultsIRS developed in 14% (9/64) of the patients, a median of 47 days after the use of anti-TB therapy. Liver versus other types of organ transplant recipients (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 6.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08–34.86), prior cytomegalovirus infection (adjusted OR, 5.65; 95% CI, 0.93–34.47), and rifampin use (adjusted OR, 4.56; 95% CI, 0.74–27) were associated with a higher risk of IRS. The presence of more than one factor (liver transplantation, cytomegalovirus infection, and rifampin use) when compared with none of these factors conferred a 19-fold increase in the risk of IRS (P=0.01). Mortality at 1 year after diagnosis was 33.3% in patients with IRS and 17.2% in those without IRS (P=0.31).ConclusionsIRS was documented in 14% of the SOT recipients with TB. We determined clinically identifiable factors that may be useful in assessing the risk of tuberculosis-associated posttransplantation IRS.

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