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Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), the second leading cause of end stage renal disease in children, appears to be increasing. Moreover, posttransplantation FSGS recurrence is a major problem, and there is concern that children receiving kidneys from living donors (LD) have increased recurrence risk.Data from the United Network for Organ Sharing from 1988 to 2008 were analyzed for number of de novo transplant recipients with a primary diagnosis of FSGS in children 1 to 20 years of age. Poisson regression was used for trend analysis. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association of gender, race, human leukocyte antigen matching, age, and donor type with recurrence.Trend analysis of kidney transplantations for FSGS in children (n=2157) showed an increase in cases of 5.8% per year or 209% over 20 years (P<0.0001). Recurrence was reported in 327 (15%) cases overall, with a preponderance for white recipients (P<0.001) in younger age subgroups (P<0.01). Donor type was significant (P=0.02), with recurrence reported in 17% versus 14% of recipients of kidneys from LDs versus deceased donors. Using multivariate analysis, recipients’ young age (P=0.02) and white race (P<0.001) were identified as significant risk factors for recurrence, whereas receiving a LD kidney became insignificant.FSGS as a cause of pediatric end-stage renal disease leading to transplantation is on the rise. FSGS recurrence is highest in young, white children, whereas receiving a LD kidney is not independently associated with increased risk of recurrence.