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Interleukin-10 (IL-10), originally described as a product of TH2 cell clones, has been recognized as a potential Immunosuppresslve cytokine. To Investigate the relevance of IL-10 in melanoma patients in vivo, we studied IL-10 serum levels in 104 untreated patients in different stages of the disease; 20 healthy subjects and 22 patients with inflammatory dermatoses served as controls. Serum levels were measured by ELISA. Only one of 31 patients with stage I melanoma (3%) and one of 16 stage II patients (6%) showed detectable IL-10 levels. Interestingly, six of 17 patients with lymph node metastases (stage III, 35%) and 29 of 40 patients with widespread disease (stage IV, 73%) revealed IL-10 levels of 15–480 pg/ml. No healthy person and only one control patient had a detectable IL-10 serum level. The data suggest that IL-10 in melanoma patients may contribute to down-modulation of anti-tumour responses in vivo.