The incidence of melanoma has increased continuously during the last decade. Surgery is the mainstay of therapy but, for patients with thick lesions or regional metastatic lymph nodes, there is a high risk of relapse. For this group of patients, there is no standard therapy or general agreement amongst oncologists. In this article, we review the current management of melanoma with regard to past completed adjuvant trials and open trials. Moreover, we discuss the role of chemotherapy in metastatic melanoma, in particular with attention to the use of fotemustine.