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The aim of the study was to compare rates of smokers among physicians and nurses in the USA, a country with relatively high levels of activity in tobacco control, with those in a country with low levels of tobacco-control efforts. Analysis of interview data in three cross-sectional population studies was carried out. The tobacco-smoking rate of the physicians in the country with low prevention activity dropped to 18%, which is still much higher than the smoking rate in the US and other European countries. In conclusion, prevention activity on a national level might contribute to reducing the rate of current smokers among physicians to a large extent, less so in nurses.