Management of central isosexual precocity: diagnosis, treatment, outcome

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The diagnosis of central isosexual precocity, a condition much more common in girls than in boys, is currently viewed as a spectrum of disorders between isolated premature thelarche and borderline early puberty. In some countries, a trend may be seen toward onset of puberty at earlier ages. Integration of the clinical findings with bone age, pelvic echography, and hormonal data as well as follow-up ascertainment of progression of development is critical to define which patients should be proposed for therapy. The use of long-acting forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists may not be indicated in slowly progressive variants or borderline early puberty because they do not affect final height. Preservation of height potential is particularly obvious in precocious puberty starting at young ages. In some selected patients, associated growth hormone therapy may increase adult height but further studies are warranted. The psychosocial and behavioral correlates of precocious puberty are an important and underinvestigated area.

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