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Congenital heart surgery is a young and constantly evolving field. Since the first patent ductus arteriosus ligation by Robert Gross of Boston in 1938, a greater understanding of the anatomy and pathophysiology of congenital heart disease, improved diagnostics, and the advent of cardiopulmonary bypass and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest have allowed the open repair of many lesions. Further advances in preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative patient management have resulted in greatly improved survivals for even the most complex congenital defects. By looking forward through continual technical innovation and back with the critical evaluation of established techniques, we continue to advance the care of the patient with congenital heart disease.