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Childhood vaccination recommendations in the United States have increased throughout the years. Many providers, patients, and families are overwhelmed and have concerns regarding the safety and efficacy of vaccines. Various barriers and challenges exist for healthcare providers to successfully implement the vaccination recommendations. This review will discuss the 2009 and newly released 2010 immunization recommendations, as well as challenges and strategies to improve vaccination in children and adolescents.Seasonal influenza immunization continues to be promoted for all children, and recommendations for vaccination against novel influenza A have emerged as well. Concerns surrounding vaccine safety and necessity may cause increasing rates of vaccine refusal among some parents, but clear messages from providers and unbiased information about benefits and risks of immunization may counteract these doubts. Barriers to immunizing adolescents continue as access to healthcare in this age group changes.Pediatric providers currently face numerous challenges in improving rates of immunization among children and adolescents. Promoting coverage through the influenza vaccines, counseling parents with clear information about the risks and benefits of vaccines, and taking advantage of nonpreventive visits for immunization are some strategies suggested to address these challenges.