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To observe, histologically, bone induced by recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in onlay grafted and sinus lifted alveolaris.Eighteen patients were treated with rhBMP-2 at concentration 1.5 mg/mL with an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS). The treated bone was harvested with small trephine bur at 5 or 7 months after surgery for the micro Computer Scanning (CT) and light microscopic observation.Micro CT showed clearly 3-dimensional trabecular bone structure. New bone formation and bone marrow structure were observed in the observed area. Osteoblastic cells existed along the new bone, and osteopontin was localized in the bone matrix weakly. In the connective tissue around the new bone, many CD34-positive blood vessel cells were present. Some tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclastic cells were observed around bone at this stage.The application of rhBMP-2 with ACS induced a new bone accompanied by blood vessels in atrophied alveolaris. This suggests that rhBMP-2 is capable of osteoinductivity in human jaw.