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Brain arteriovenous malformation (BAVM) resection can result in an acute increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF) of unclear etiology. This observational study investigated the relationship between changes in CBF and cardiac output (CO) in patients undergoing microsurgical resection of BAVMs. In 20 patients undergoing a BAVM resection during an isoflurane-based anesthesia, we measured CBF and systemic cardiovascular parameters immediately before and after BAVM resection. CBF was measured on the hemisphere ipsilateral to the lesions and on the contralateral side, using intravenous cold 133Xe washout. Cardiac output was measured using thermodilution technique via a pulmonary artery catheter. There was an increase in global CBF after resection (25 ± 8 versus 31 ± 13 mL/100 g/min, preresection versus postresection, mean ± SD, P = .002), ipsilateral CBF (25 ± 8 versus 31 ± 13 mL/100 g/min, P = .002), and contralateral CBF (24 ± 7 versus 30 ± 13 mL/100 g/min, P = .003). There was no change in CO, mean systemic arterial pressure, central venous pressure, or pulmonary artery diastolic pressure. The change in CBFGLOBAL was not correlated with changes in CO (r = .154, P = .517). BAVM resection resulted in global increases in CBF that was not substantially related to changes in CO or other systemic parameters.