A survey was conducted to evaluate prosthetic use and factors predisposing to prosthetic use among 396 adults with unilateral amputations. A response rate of 76% was obtained. Eighty-five percent of the respondents were prosthetic wearers; 53% actively used their prosthesis for the majority of their indoor activities; and 64% did so for the majority of their outdoor activities. Adaptation to the amputation and prosthesis and level of amputation were significantly correlated with prosthetic wear and active use indoors and outdoors. Presence of arthritic problems in the nonamputated limb were negatively related to prosthetic wear, but for activities outdoors, muscle cramps and sores were the limiting factors. Long delays in limb fitting, prolonged training, cardiac and respiratory problems, and constant stump pain were significantly related to disuse. Linear and logistic regression analyses further identified the combined factors that could be predictive of prosthetic use.