Correlation of CYP2D6 genotype with perhexiline phenotypic metabolizer status

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Abstract

Perhexiline is metabolized by CYP2D6 and has concentration-related hepatoxicity and peripheral neuropathy. The risk of toxicity is reduced using therapeutic drug monitoring. CYP2D6 genotyping before therapy may allow earlier appropriate dosing. This study aimed to determine whether assessment of CYP2D6 genotype in patients on perhexiline could predict accurately metabolizer status as determined by the perhexiline metabolic ratio (MR). Blood samples from patients stabilized on perhexiline were analysed for CYP2D6 genotype and for concentrations of perhexiline and its hydroxy metabolite. The MR was determined. Of 74 patients, five were poor metabolizers (PM) defined by a MR < 0.4, and the remainder were extensive metabolizers (EM). The genotypes were: *1/*1 (n = 21), *1/*4 (n = 18), *1/*2 (n = 12), *1/*3 (n = 2), *1/*5 (n = 1), *1/*9 (n = 2), *1/*10 (n = 2), *2/*4 (n = 4), *2/*2 (n = 3), *4/*41 (n = 3), *2/*41 (n = 1), *41/*41 (n = 1), *4/*9 (n = 1), *4/*5 (n = 1), *5/*6 (n = 1) and *4/*6 (n = 1). Allele frequencies were consistent with those reported in population studies. The 3 PMs with the lowest MR were predicted by genotype (*4/*5, *5/*6, *4/*6). The other 2 PMs had intermediate metabolizer genotypes and were on CYP2D6 inhibiting drugs. Amongst the EMs, the highest MR was associated with *1 and *2 allele combinations and the MR was progressively lower with the presence of alleles with intermediate function (*9, *10, *41) followed by alleles with no functional product (*3,*4, *5, *6). Thus, a gene–dose effect was observed. Genotype predicted PM phenotype and also intermediate metabolizers. Determination of CYP2D6 genotype before therapy with perhexiline may help predict perhexiline dose requirements and reduce the risk of perhexiline concentration-related toxicity.

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