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Anidulafungin (LY-303366, VER002) is a semisynthetic derivative of echinocandin B and a potent antifungal agent active against a wide spectrum of fungal pathogens. We reviewed published papers, abstracts, and data to provide an overview focusing on the microbiology of anidulafungin and its promise for treating fungal infections. Anidulafungin was found to have excellent in vivo and in vitro activity against various Candida, Aspergillus, and other pathogenic fungi, often at lower concentrations than other currently used drugs. Additionally, anidulafungin inhibits Candida albicans biofilm growth in vitro. Anidulafungin was also found to have low or no toxicity in the animal models reviewed. This is likely because anidulafungin and other candins inhibit the synthesis of 1,3-β-d-glucan, a fungus-specific component of the cell wall. Anidulafungin promises to be an effective and safe agent for the treatment of candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis.