Neural bases of learning and memory: functional neuroimaging evidence

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Positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have identified brain regions associated with different forms of memory. Working memory has been associated primarily with the bilateral prefrontal and parietal regions; semantic memory with the left prefrontal and temporal regions; episodic memory encoding with the left prefrontal and medial temporal regions; episodic memory retrieval with the right prefrontal, posterior midline and medial temporal regions; and skill learning with the motor, parietal, and subcortical regions. Recent studies have provided higher specificity, by dissociating the neural correlates of different subcomponents of complex memory tasks, and the cognitive roles of different subregions of larger brain areas.

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