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Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common respiratory pathogen that is now being implicated in a number of chronic diseases. That the organism can infect vascular endothelium, macrophages and smooth muscle cells suggests that it may play a role in many systemic diseases. The present review focuses on the possibility that the central nervous system can also be a target of this agent. The tropism of C. pneumoniae to the neural tissue suggests it may play a role in diverse neurologic diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis and giant-cell arteritis.