Update on viral encephalitis

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Over 100 viruses have been associated with acute central nervous system infections. The present review focuses on some of the most common agents of viral encephalitis, as well as important emerging viral encephalitides. In this context, the initial detection of West Nile virus in the Western Hemisphere during the 1999 New York City outbreak, the first description of Nipah virus in Malaysia, and the appearance in Asia of a new neurovirulent enterovirus 71 strain that causes severe neurologic disease are highlighted. In addition, advances regarding diagnosis, neuroimaging and treatment of Japanese and herpes simplex encephalitis are presented.

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