Recent studies demonstrate that neurological patients show great potential for recovery in both the early and late stages following injury. Enhancement of the recovery process could be achieved with new rehabilitation approaches alone or in combination with pharmacological intervention. These new approaches have evolved from fundamental advances in both animal and human studies. To date few randomized clinical trials have addressed the efficacy or effectiveness of these new approaches. In this paper, important quantitative studies will be reviewed and discussed in relation to the important mechanisms of locomotor control and plasticity that take place following lesions of the central nervous system.