Fungal brain infections

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Purpose of review

Fungal infections of the central nervous system, once a relatively rare occurrence, are increasingly common due to the expansion of immunocompromised populations at risk, and therefore are important to recognize early and manage appropriately.

Recent findings

The specific infectious risk posed by novel immune-modifying therapies can, in most cases, be predicted on the basis of the immune target and medication timing. In addition, major advances in noninvasive diagnostic tests (e.g. serum beta glucan and galactomannan assays), and the recent introduction of more effective antifungal therapies, have led to a dramatic improvement in clinical outcomes.


The current review provides approaches to patients with suspected central nervous system fungal infections based on host-risk factors, clinical syndromes and specific pathogens.

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