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Medication-overuse headache (MOH) is a well described clinical entity. There is a growing body of knowledge on the epidemiology of MOH, risk factors, and treatment strategies.The International Headache Society updated the classification criteria for MOH. Population-based studies provided an insight into the prevalence and peculiarities of MOH patients in eastern Europe and Asia. Large-scaled population-based longitudinal studies made it possible to analyze risk factors leading to the development of MOH. Imaging studies helped to better understand the pathophysiology of headache chronicity. New treatment strategies have been suggested.MOH is a common headache disorder and a serious public health problem all over the world. Although the treatment regimen for MOH patients is straightforward and the outcomes are favorable, it is time now to move forward and establish a predictive model for early recognition of patients at high risk, to intervene early and avoid development of chronic headache.