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Statins and calcium channel blockers have been proven beneficial toward improvement of endothelial function. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of combination therapy of statin and calcium channel blocker with solo treatment in patients with cardiac syndrome X.Sixty-eight patients with cardiac syndrome X were divided randomly into three groups: fluvastatin (40 mg/day, n=23), diltiazem (90 mg/day, n=22), and combination of fluvastatin (40 mg/day) and diltiazem (90 mg/day, n=23). At the end of 90 days, the coronary flow reserve was improved in the three groups (fluvastatin-treated group: 23.2%; diltiazem-treated group: 12.4%; fluvastatin+diltiazem-treated group: 29.1%, all P<0.05). The time to 1 mm ST segment depression increased significantly in the fluvastatin-treated group (from 241±97 to 410±140 s, P<0.05), the diltiazem-treated group (from 258±91 to 392±124 s, P<0.05), and the fluvastatin+diltiazem-treated group (from 250±104 to 446±164 s, P<0.05). The improvement in coronary flow reserve and prolonged time to 1 mm ST segment depression in the combination treatment group were more remarkable than in those who received monotherapy. Combination therapy also induced a significant increase (35.6%, P<0.05) in nitric oxide and an apparent reduction (48.7%, P<0.05) in endothelin-1.Combination treatment with fluvastatin and diltiazem is more effective on endothelial function and exercise tolerance than solo treatment in patients with cardiac syndrome X. The benefits of these drugs may be related to the elevation of nitric oxide and reduction of endothelin-1.