Cutaneous features in 17q21.31 deletion syndrome: a differential diagnosis for cardio–facio–cutaneous syndrome

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Microdeletion of 17q21.31 causes a recurrent recognizable dysmorphic syndrome. A further four patients with 17q21.31 microdeletions are reported here in whom an earlier diagnosis of cardio–facio–cutaneous syndrome was suggested. These patients have significant similarities of facial gestalt to earlier reported 17q21.31 microdeletion patients, but a striking feature that has not been emphasized previously is the large number of naevi and other pigmentary skin abnormalities that may be present. These features, together with a coarse facial appearance, relative macrocephaly and significant learning disabilities, were what had led to the earlier diagnostic suggestion of cardio–facio–cutaneous syndrome in each of these four cases.

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