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Uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex cord tumor (UTROSCT) is a rare tumor of reproductive-age and postmenopausal women. We present the first case of UTROSCT with cytogenetic analysis. The tumor occurred in a 34-year-old woman who presented with menorrhagia and a uterine mass. Histologic examination showed tumor with features of sex cord-like epithelium and abundant fibromuscular stroma without an endometrial stromal sarcoma component. The tumor cells expressed cytokeratin, CD99, vimentin, desmin, smooth muscle actin, and estrogen and progesterone receptors. The majority of the cells analyzed by cytogenetic studies showed two balanced chromosomal translocations: t(X;6)(p22.3;q23.1) and t(4;18)(q21.1;q21.3). Several known tumor-related genes (bcl-2, MALT-1, FVT1, SCCA1, SCCA2, and DCC at 18q21; RAP1 at 4q21; and STL at 6q23) and a gonadal-development related gene (H-Y regulator gene at Xp22.3) are located at or near the translocation breakpoints. The tumor cells of sex cord–like elements were strongly and diffusely immunoreactive for bcl-2 antibody. These cytogenetic and immunohistochemical data may suggest potential molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis of UTROSCT.