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The fact that hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and antithyroid drugs cause alopecia appears in classic medical books. No studies assess the presence, the frequency, and the types of alopecia that can be seen in thyroid patients. We evaluate the presence, frequency, and the types of alopecia seen in 286 female patients with thyroid disease and 141 healthy women. Alopecia was investigated by clinical examination, hair pull test, dermoscopy and, if necessary, by biopsy. Compared with the control group, female pattern hair loss (FPHL) and diffuse hair loss (DHL) was statistically higher in the study group. The incidence of alopecia areata (AA) was not different, even in the patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases. The duration of thyroid disease was significantly longer in patients with FPHL. A significant difference in the types of alopecia in patients with thyroid disease was not found. We found that the DHL is infrequent in thyroid patients, alopecia is a rare presenting sign, antithyroid medicine usage does not appear to cause alopecia, and alopecia areata (AA) is not now common in patients with thyroid disease. Finally, FPHL is frequently found in patients with thyroid disease and is related to the duration of the disease.