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Cochlear implantation is a well tolerated and effective procedure in the rehabilitation of profoundly and severely hearing-impaired individuals. Cochlear reimplantation may be necessary for a variety of reasons. The recent literature regarding the indications, surgical considerations, and outcomes in revision cochlear implant (RCI) surgery is reviewed here.A small but significant percentage (3–8%) of all cochlear implant procedures requires RCI surgery. The most common indication for RCI is hard failure (40–80%), but other common indications include soft failures, wound complications, infection, improper initial placement, and electrode extrusions. There is a high rate of surgical success in RCI with preservation or improvement of preoperative performance in the majority of patients, in addition to the alleviation of prereimplantation symptoms. Both children and adults benefit from RCI when indicated and experience similar auditory successes following RCI.The need for RCI is uncommon, but the potential for restoration or improvement in speech perception and alleviation of symptoms exists. Regardless of indication, RCI surgery is well tolerated, and, with thoughtful preparation, individualized patient counseling, and proper surgical technique, most patients can expect successful outcomes.