Hypertonic saline (HS) resuscitation after hemorrhage and sepsis has been shown to markedly reduce the development of lung injury in animals, compared with traditional resuscitation with lactated Ringer's (LR). These experiments examined the effect of HS on lung injury after hemorrhage without sepsis. The effects of HS and LR resuscitation on neutrophil trafficking, neutrophil adhesion, and neutrophil oxidative burst were studied. Methods: BALB/c mice were hemorrhaged to a mean arterial pressure of 40 torr for 1 h. Animals were resuscitated with shed blood and either 4 mL/kg of 7.5% HS or LR in twice the volume of the shed blood. Lung histology was examined 24 h after hemorrhage. Lung myeloperoxidase content and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid neutrophil counts were obtained. Peripheral blood smears were obtained to determine the neutrophil percentage. Peripheral blood neutrophil CD11b expression and neutrophil H2O2 production were assayed by flow cytometry. Results: HS animals had less lung injury than LR animals. The mean myeloperoxidase activity in HS versus LR animals was 1.79 ± 1.33 U/100 mg versus 3.0 ± 1.33 U/100 mg, respectively. The percentage of neutrophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of HS animals (3.8% ± .8) was significantly less than that of LR animals (10.8% ± 2.1). This corresponded to a significantly higher peripheral blood neutrophil count in HS animals compared with LR animals, 41% vs. 20%, respectively. There was no difference in neutrophil expression of the CD11b integrin between the HS and LR groups. The neutrophils of LR animals had basal H2O2 production that was 107% greater than that of controls; HS suppressed this hemorrhage-induced activation by > 60%. HS resuscitation after hemorrhagic shock protects against the development of lung injury. This protection is due, in part, to suppression of the hemorrhage-induced neutrophil oxidative burst. HS resuscitation offers immunomodulatory potential after hemorrhagic shock.