The glycolytic intermediate, pyruvate, is capable of scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, this compound is relatively unstable and hence is not useful as a therapeutic agent. Ethyl pyruvate, a simple derivative of pyruvate, appears to be more stable, and when formulated in a calcium-containing Ringer's-type balanced salt solution (REPS), has been shown to be salutary in rat models of two pathophysiological conditions—mesenteric ischemia/reperfusion and hemorrhagic shock/resuscitation—that are thought to be mediated, at least in part, by ROS. Because ROS also have been implicated in the pathogenesis of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced shock, we carried out a series of experiments to determine if REPS is beneficial in this condition. Anesthetized rats were challenged with intravenous LPS (20 mg/kg). When mean arterial pressure (MAP) decreased to 60 mmHg, 3- to 5-mL boluses of either REPS (n = 10) or Ringer's lactate solution (RLS; n = 10) were infused as needed to prevent MAP from decreasing further. By design, the maximal volume of fluid infused was 7 mL/kg. Resuscitation with REPS as compared with RLS prolonged survival time (498 ± 48 min vs. 362 ± 30 min;P = 0.0014). Resuscitation with REPS as compared with RLS also was associated with significantly lower circulating concentrations of nitrite/nitrate and interleukin (IL)-6 and higher plasma levels of IL-10. These data support the view that delayed treatment with REPS modulates the inflammatory response to LPS, and prolongs survival time in a lethal model of endotoxic shock.