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S 100 B is a glial marker of cerebral injury. In a previous clinical study, we found an S 100 B increase within the first 24 h in patients with multiple trauma and hemorrhagic shock but without cerebral trauma. The aim of our current experimental study was to determine whether this posttraumatic S 100 B increase is caused by extracerebral soft tissue injury or by hemorrhagic shock and whether it is associated with the severity of hemorrhagic shock. Hemorrhagic shock was achieved by bleeding anesthetized rats to a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 30–35 mmHg through a femoral catheter and maintaining this MAP until incipient decompensation. At incipient decompensation, MAP was either increased immediately to 40–45 mmHg (moderate shock) or was maintained until 40% of shed blood had been returned (severe shock), and then increased to 40–45 mmHg. Resuscitation was provided after 40–45 mmHg MAP had been maintained for 40 min. Soft tissue injury was achieved by midline laparotomy performed at the onset of hemorrhagic shock or without shock and was maintained for 30 min. Hemorrhagic shock caused an early S 100 B increase at the onset of decompensation. S 100 B remained increased for 24 h and was significantly higher after severe than after moderate shock. In contrast, soft tissue injury without hemorrhagic shock caused no S 100 B increase. The data presented demonstrate for the first time that the S 100 B increase is induced by hemorrhagic shock and is associated with the severity of shock.