Nosocomial pneumonia in trauma patients is a significant source of resource utilization and mortality. We have previously described increased rates of pneumonia in male trauma patients in a single institution study. In that study, female trauma patients had a lower incidence of postinjury pneumonia but a higher relative risk for mortality when they did develop pneumonia. We sought to investigate the hypothesis that male trauma patients have an increased incidence of postinjury pneumonia in a separate population-based dataset. Prospective data were collected on 30,288 trauma patients (26,231 blunt injuries, 4057 penetrating injuries) admitted to all trauma centers (n = 26) in Pennsylvania over 24 months (January 1996 to December 1997). Gender differences in pneumonia were determined for the entire dataset. A second analysis examined all blunt injury patients and excluded all patients with a hospital length of stay less than 24 h, eliminating patients who expired early after admission. In trauma patients with minor injury (ISS < 15), there was no significant difference between male and female patients in the rate of postinjury pneumonia (male 1.37%, female 1.11%). In the moderate-injury group (ISS > 15), male trauma patients had a significantly increased incidence of postinjury pneumonia (ISS 15–30, male 8.85%, female 6.45%; ISS > 30, male 24.35%, female 17.30%). Logistic regression analysis of blunt trauma patients revealed that gender, ISS, injury type, admission Revised Trauma Score (RTS), admission respiratory rate, history of cardiac disease, and history of cancer were all independent predictors of pneumonia. Trauma patients with nosocomial pneumonia had a significantly higher mortality rate (P < 0.001) than patients without pneumonia. There was no gender-specific difference in mortality among pneumonia patients. Male gender is significantly associated with an increased incidence of postinjury pneumonia. In contrast to our initial study, there was no gender difference in postinjury pneumonia mortality rates identified in this population-based study.