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Trauma and hemorrhagic shock (HS) elicit severe physiological disturbances that predispose the victims to subsequent organ dysfunction and death. The general lack of effective therapeutic options for these patients is mainly due to the complex interplay of interacting inflammatory and physiological elements working at multiple levels. Systems biology has emerged as a new paradigm that allows the study of large portions of physiological networks simultaneously. Seeking a better understanding of the interplay among known inflammatory pathways, we constructed a mathematical model encompassing the dynamics of the acute inflammatory response that incorporates the intertwined effects of inflammation and global tissue damage. The model was calibrated using data from C57Bl/6 mice subjected to endotoxemia, sham operation (i.e., surgical trauma induced by cannulation [ST]) or ST + HS+ resuscitation (ST-HS-R). An in silico simulation, made at whole-organism level, suggested that similar pathways of different magnitudes were operant as the degree of total body damage increased. We sought to validate this hypothesis by subjecting mice to HS and comparing the models predictions to circulating markers of inflammation and tissue injury as well as the global transcriptomic response of the liver. C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to ST or ST-HS (without resuscitation). Liver gene expression was assessed using an Affymetrix DNA microarray (GeneChip Mouse Expression Set 430A, Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA), which contains 22,621 probe sets and effectively interrogates 12,341 mouse genes. The microarray data sets were subjected to hierarchical clustering and pathway analysis. In agreement with model predictions, circulating levels of inflammation/tissue injury markers and the microarray analysis both demonstrated that ST alone accounts for a substantial proportion of the observed phenotypic and genetic/molecular changes versus untreated animals. The addition of HS further increased the magnitude of gene expression, but relatively few additional genes were recruited. Mathematical simulations and DNA microarrays, both systems biology tools, may provide valuable insight into the complex global physiological interactions that occur in response to trauma and hemorrhagic shock.