MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF POSTHEMORRHAGE INFLAMMATION IN MICE: STUDIES USING A NOVEL, COMPUTER-CONTROLLED, CLOSED-LOOP HEMORRHAGE APPARATUS


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Abstract

Hemorrhagic shock (HS) elicits a global acute inflammatory response, organ dysfunction, and death. We have used mathematical modeling of inflammation and tissue damage/dysfunction to gain insight into this complex response in mice. We sought to increase the fidelity of our mathematical model and to establish a platform for testing predictions of this model. Accordingly, we constructed a computerized, closed-loop system for mouse HS. The intensity, duration, and time to achieve target MAP could all be controlled using a software. Fifty-four male C57/black mice either were untreated or underwent surgical cannulation. The cannulated mice were divided into 8 groups: (a) 1, 2, 3, or 4 h of surgical cannulation alone and b) 1, 2, 3, or 4 h of cannulation + HS (25 mmHg). MAP was sustained by the computer-controlled reinfusion and withdrawal of shed blood within ±2 mmHg. Plasma was assayed for the cytokines TNF, IL-6, and IL-10 as well as the NO reaction products NO2/NO3. The cytokine and NO2/NO3 data were compared with predictions from a mathematical model of post-hemorrhage inflammation, which was calibrated on different data. To varying degrees, the levels of TNF, IL-6, IL-10, and NO2/NO3 predicted by the mathematical model matched these data closely. In conclusion, we have established a hardware/software platform that allows for highly accurate, reproducible, and mathematically predictable HS in mice.

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