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The RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products) is believed to play a role in sepsis by perpetuating inflammation. The interaction of RAGE with a variety of host-derived ligands that accumulate during stress and inflammation further induces the expression of RAGE. It was previously shown that a rat anti-RAGE monoclonal antibody protected mice from lethality in a cecal ligation and puncture model. We studied the effects of a humanized anti-RAGE monoclonal antibody in the murine pneumococcal pneumonia model of sepsis. Moreover, a gene expression analysis was performed in lung tissue of animals that underwent cecal ligation and puncture and treated with the rat anti-RAGE monoclonal antibody, compared with controls. Administration of humanized anti-RAGE mAb 6 h after intratracheal infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae improved mortality in BALB/c mice whether a 7.5 mg/kg (P < 0.01) or a 15 mg/kg dose (P < 0.01) was administered in combination with antibiotics. Gene expression analysis showed that many of the genes modulated by treatment with the anti-RAGE antibody were those that play an important role in regulating inflammation. Anti-RAGE monoclonal antibody offered a survival advantage to septic mice. This protective role in treated animals is supported by the observed gene expression profile changes of genes involved in sepsis and inflammation.