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New insights into the endothelium as a dynamic, interactive organ have generated increased interest in endothelial cell transcriptional regulation. Peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), as ligand-activated nuclear receptors expressed in endothelial cells, represent one important pathway that likely influences vascular responses both directly and indirectly by altering gene expression. PPAR ligands such as fibrates (PPAR-α) and insulin-sensitizing thiazolidinediones (PPAR-γ) are in clinical use and may alter the process of atherosclerosis. The present review highlights the emerging evidence for PPAR-α and PPAR-γ expression in the vasculature, as well as their potential roles in endothelial cell biology.