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Dyslipoproteinemia is a cardinal feature of the metabolic syndrome that accelerates atherosclerosis. Recent in-vivo kinetic studies of dyslipidemia in the metabolic syndrome are reviewed here.The dysregulation of lipoprotein metabolism may be caused by a combination of overproduction of VLDL apolipoprotein B-100, decreased catabolism of apolipoprotein B-containing particles, and increased catabolism of HDL apolipoprotein A-I particles. Nutritional modifications and increased physical exercise may favourably alter lipoprotein transport by collectively decreasing the hepatic secretion of VLDL apolipoprotein B and the catabolism of HDL apolipoprotein A-I, as well as by increasing the clearance of LDL apolipoprotein B. Conventional and new pharmacological treatments, such as statins, fibrates and cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors, can also correct dyslipidemia by several mechanisms, including decreased secretion and increased catabolism of apolipoprotein B, as well as increased secretion and decreased catabolism of apolipoprotein A-I.Kinetic studies provide a mechanistic insight into the dysregulation and therapy of lipid and lipoprotein disorders. Future research mandates the development of new tracer methodologies with practicable in-vivo protocols for investigating fatty acid turnover, macrophage reverse cholesterol transport, cholesterol transport in plasma, corporeal cholesterol balance, and the turnover of several subpopulations of HDL particles.