HDL cholesterol transport during inflammation


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Abstract

Purpose of reviewThe aim of this article is to review recent advances made towards understanding how inflammation and acute phase proteins, particularly serum amyloid A and group IIa secretory phospholipase A2, may alter reverse cholesterol transport by HDL during inflammation and the acute phase response.Recent findingsFindings suggest that the decreased apoA-I content and markedly increased serum amyloid A content in HDL during the acute phase response result from reciprocal and coordinate transcriptional regulation of these proteins as well as HDL remodeling by group IIa secretory phospholipase A2. Serum amyloid A functions efficiently in a lipid-free or lipid-poor form to promote cholesterol efflux by ATP binding cassette protein ABCA1, evidently by functioning directly as an acceptor for cholesterol efflux as well as by increasing the availability of cellular free cholesterol. Serum amyloid A increases the ability of acute phase HDL to serve as an acceptor for SR-BI-dependent cellular cholesterol efflux. Altered remodeling of HDL by group IIa secretory phospholipase A2 in concert with cholesterol ester transfer protein may contribute to the generation of lipid-poor apoA-I and serum amyloid A acceptors for cholesterol efflux.SummaryCurrent data support a model for the acute phase response in which serum amyloid A and sPLA2-IIa, present at sites of inflammation and tissue damage, play a protective role by enhancing cellular cholesterol efflux, thereby promoting the removal of excess cholesterol from macrophages.

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