Concerted actions of cholesteryl ester transfer protein and phospholipid transfer protein in type 2 diabetes: effects of apolipoproteins

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Abstract

Purpose of review

Type 2 diabetes frequently coincides with dyslipidemia, characterized by elevated plasma triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and the presence of small dense low-density lipoprotein particles. Plasma lipid transfer proteins play an essential role in lipoprotein metabolism. It is thus vital to understand their pathophysiology and determine which factors influence their functioning in type 2 diabetes.

Recent findings

Cholesteryl ester transfer protein-mediated transfer is increased in diabetic patients and contributes to low plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Apolipoproteins A-I, A-II and E are components of the donor lipoprotein particles that participate in the transfer of cholesteryl esters from high-density lipoprotein to apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. Current evidence for functional roles of apolipoproteins C-I, F and A-IV as modulators of cholesteryl ester transfer is discussed. Phospholipid transfer protein activity is increased in diabetic patients and may contribute to hepatic very low-density lipoprotein synthesis and secretion and vitamin E transfer. Apolipoprotein E could stimulate the phospholipid transfer protein-mediated transfer of surface fragments of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins to high-density lipoprotein, and promote high-density lipoprotein remodelling.

Summary

Both phospholipid and cholesteryl ester transfer proteins are important in very low and high-density lipoprotein metabolism and display concerted actions in patients with type 2 diabetes.

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